Monday, 16 October 2017

North-East Faroe Shetland Channel


North-East Faroe Shetland Channel Nature Conservation Marine Protected Area (NCMPA) is the other site JNCC and Marine Scotland Science are visiting on the upcoming survey.

video

Designated in 2014, North-East Faroe Shetland Channel is the largest NCMPA in UK waters, stretching from 330m to over 2,000m deep. The focus of this survey are the deep-sea sponges, known to thrive in the nutrient rich 400-600m waters.

Up to 50 different species of Deep-sea sponges live in this channel, providing shelter for a large range of small sea life and a perch for animals that filter food from passing currents.

Probes test temperature and how salty the water is (salinity) to allow the team to paint a better picture of where these deep-sea sponges live. Live video footage and images add to this picture allowing us to identify the sponges. 

The main aim of this survey is to complete Type One monitoring, this is where a robust dataset is collected which can be used to compare this environment now, to how it is in the future.

To find out more information about North-East Faroe Shetland Channel, check out the JNCC Site Information Centre

For more updates from the team, make sure to follow @JNCC_UK on twitter and this blog by entering your email address on the right hand side of the screen.


Wednesday, 20 September 2017

New JNCC and Marine Scotland Science survey setting sail soon!


JNCC and Marine Scotland Science staff are setting sail for the north-eastern Scottish waters in the next scientific survey at the end of October.



The focus of this 20-day survey on MRV Scotia are the stony reefs of Wyville-Thomson Ridge cSAC/SCI (candidate Special Area of Conservation/Site of Community Importance) and the deep-sea sponges of North-east Faroe-Shetland Channel NCMPA (Nature Conservation Marine Protected Area) .



More information on North-east Faroe-Shetland Channel will follow in another blog post soon!


Wyville-Thomson Ridge has been a special area of conservation since November 2011. This plateau of rocky ground can be found in the Atlantic Ocean and divides the warmer water of the Rockall Trough from the cooler Faroe-Shetland Channel waters. This feature is unique to UK waters, allowing nutrients to mix and a large range of species to thrive.  

Another exciting feature of Wyville-Thomson Ridge is the large areas of stony reef, thought to have formed at the end of the last ice age by the movement of massive icebergs.

video


This stony reef allows a wide variety of marine life to live on the ridge. This marine life varies from deep-sea sponges, feather stars and coral that are anchored to the seabed, to the more mobile sea cucumbers, sea urchins and brittle stars.

Live video footage and images from a camera will allow the team to explore Wyville-Thomson Ridge and to inform how best to protect this unique area and the animals that live within it.  


To find out more information about Wyville-Thomson Ridge and the amazing animals that live there head to JNCC’s Site Information Centre and for more updates on how the team are preparing for survey make sure to follow the blog by giving your email on the panel on the right hand side of the screen. 





Monday, 31 July 2017

Surveying Bassurelle Sandbank and Wight-Barfleur Reef cSACs/SCIs

Bassurelle Sandbank


Having arrived at Bassurelle Sandbank our scientists began work collecting grab samples to look at the creatures living within the sediment and using a towed camera sledge to record footage of what is living on the seabed.

Sea Potatoes on a 5mm sieving table. Image © JNCC/Cefas 2017.
Animals like sea potatoes (Echinocardium cordatum), a type of sea urchin, were collected in grab samples. Sea Potatoes use the spines which cover their bodies to burrow into the sand, where they feed on organic debris amongst the sediment.


Grab and camera sledge sampling stations at Bassurelle Sandbank (note that some grab stations were visited more than once).
In total at Bassurelle Sandbank, 140 grab samples were collected, along with 26 video transects. The information that these samples tell us about the communities of organisms that make this sandbank their home will help JNCC and Cefas to understand how to better protect this site and ensure its condition is maintained and improved.


Wight-Barfleur Reef


At Wight-Barfleur Reef the survey objective was to collect images of the rocky reefs that occur at the site, as well as the animals that inhabit them. As with Bassurelle Sandbank, this information will be used to monitor the condition of the site.


The first job was to collect acoustic data to enable our scientists to identify areas likely to have reef so that a camera could be lowered down to examine the habitat. As Wight-Barfleur Reef is so big, sampling took place within a few more manageable-sized boxes inside the site boundary.

Example map of one area of Wight-Barfleur Reef visited on this survey. This is to demonstrate how drop camera stations are planned by first collecting blocks of acoustic data.


The HD video and still images revealed a diverse community of sponges and bryozoans, as well as animals that use the reefs for shelter and as a feeding ground.

Images from Wight-Barfleur Reef: (a) Elephant hide sponge (Pachymatisma johnstonia) growing on a rocky ridge. (b) An edible crab (Cancer pagurus) shelters under a rock. (c) A bryozoan colony, known as a “Ross Coral” (Pentapora foliacea), forms in a cluster of rose petal-like sheets. (d) A brightly coloured male cuckoo wrasse (Labrus mixtus) swims amongst the cobbles. Images © JNCC/Cefas 2017.


In total 82 drop camera transects were completed and acoustic data was acquired from ~170.5 km2 of seabed.


Having attained all the samples needed, the survey came to an end. Work will now begin on analysing the samples that were collected, which will help us monitor the site over time. JNCC would like to thank all those involved who helped make this another successful JNCC/Cefas partnership survey.

Heading west towards the sunset and our final stop on this survey at Falmouth. Image © JNCC/Mike Nelson.


James Albrecht
JNCC Offshore Seabed Survey Ecologist

Friday, 16 June 2017

Fauna from the canyons


 Over the last week we’ve been exploring the deeper areas of the Canyons from around 1000m to ~1700m. It’s been a really varied landscape from rippled sand with gravel patches and the odd boulder, to areas of bedrock and cliff-like overhangs. Each tow has been a big surprise, not knowing what fauna we might see, or if the geology will surprise us with a rocky landscape.

The most spectacular tows have been those comprising the Feature of Conservation Importance habitat Coral Gardens. These have shown us a variety of coral species from bamboo corals Isididae, antipatharians (black corals) to scleractinians (hard corals). The scleractinians have mainly been Madrepora oculata, with some Lophelia pertusa. Bamboo corals are named for their stems which have a ‘joint-like’ appearance similar to bamboo. We’ve seen the bamboo coral Lepidisis sp., amongst others, and the antipatharian Stichopathes sp., an orange coral with a spring-like coil morphology. We’ve also seen beautiful fan-shaped gorgonian corals and the aptly-named bubblegum coral Paragorgia sp.. Although much rarer, there have been a few sponges, mainly encrusting on rocks and boulders, but also what we think may be Phakellia sp., and a Hexactinellid glass sponge. 
Glass sponge and gorgonians
Phakellia sp and Paragorgia sp
Madrepora oculata and Lepidisis sp
Some sandy areas have shown us small clumps of the bamboo coral Acanella sp. and the occasional cup coral, Caryphyllia sp. We also saw a beautiful ‘forest’ of stalked crinoids. Although they look like plants (known as ‘sea lilies’), crinoids are actually animals, and are attached to the seabed via their stalk, with a mouth on the top surface that is surrounded by feeding arms. Stalked crinoids were the trigger for deep-sea exploration back in the 19th Century – see this blog from the Australian Natural Environment Science Programme - https://www.nespmarine.edu.au/crinoids-were-trigger-deep-sea-exploration

Acanella sp

Stalked crinoids

Stichopathes sp

Tuesday, 13 June 2017

North West of Jones Bank and the Canyons Survey Update


On the 22nd of May 2017 a partnership JNCC and Cefas monitoring survey to North-West of Jones Bank (NWJB) MCZ and The Canyons MCZ departed from Lowestoft. Just under 48 hrs later RV Cefas Endeavour arrived on site at NWJB MCZ having replaced a Waverider buoy south-west of the Isles of Scilly. The buoy is now running, with the data viewable.

The target monitoring features at NWJB MCZ are subtidal mud (
http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-5802) and seapens and burrowing megafaunal communities (http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-6028). These mud habitats tend to form in low energy environments where sediments can settle out and become fairly compacted.

At NWJB MCZ two day grabs and a 200m video sledge transect were collected at 71 stations. The day grabs at NWJB have been sampled for macrofauna, particle size analysis (PSA, aka sediment size) and organic, carbons and nitrogen. When sieving out the mud, the fauna has been mainly polychaetes (aka worms) of all shapes and sizes, which we need to pluck out of the sieve to make sure we don’t miss any of the important diversity in the final analysis. We have also found the occasional Nephrops, a small crustacean you may know as scampi. These bury in muddy sediments, forming semi-permanent burrows that create part of the Feature of Conservation Importance ‘Sea-pens and burrowing megafauna’. We’ve also found a few amphipods, crabs and sea-pens in the grabs.



In addition to the grab and video data, 14 NIOZ cores and 4 day grabs were acquired to support wider work on shelf biogeochemistry being carried out by Cefas.













After a 10 hours transit to the south-west the RV Cefas Endeavour arrived at The Canyons MCZ. Work has been completed on interfluves, the shallower area (200-500m) between the canyons themselves which reach down to ~2200m. The canyons themselves are named Explorer and Dangeard, with Explorer being the northern one of the two. The habitat on the interfluves is mainly muds with a veneer of sand, but the site is also comprised of ‘mini mound’ features, where coral may have been present in the past.


Drop camera transects and NIOZ cores are being carried out on the interfluves. In total 113 stations have been sampled across the two interfluves. Some interesting species have been seen at the interfluves. This included a large number of the anemone Actinauge richardi. This anemone doesn’t usually live attached to a hard surface or burrow into soft sediments like other anemones. Instead its base forms an almost enclosed cup which encloses mud and sand acting as an anchor onto the soft sediments. 


Different species of sea-pen have also been seen, including the tall sea-pen Funiculina quadrangularis, the phosphorescent sea-pen Pennatula phosphorea and what we think may be the deep-sea species Kophobelemnon sp., though this is not a confirmed identification. 


Numerous sea cucumbers have been dotted around, mainly the species Parastichopus tremulus, and a few pencil urchins Cidaris cidaris



Some examples of a soft coral, which we struggled to identify, were found in the early hours of Sunday morning (4th June), with its polyps retracted. Luckily later in the day we captured a lovely example of it with its polyps out (and a sneaky squat lobster hanging out). On discussion with some of our deep-sea colleagues, we think it is a soft coral of the Alcyoniidae family, likely to be a Drifa species. These can be identified fairly well by their shape as they look rather like cauliflower.



During our drop-camera transects on the interfluves, we have identified five species of Elasmobranchs, including some deep-water species. One of these species is the velvet belly lanternshark (Etmopterus spinax), which is one of the smaller shark species with a maximum total length of 60cm. The individuals we have seen have been ~30cm in length. This species occurs in depths between 200-500m and uses hormones to control small pigment-lined structures called photophores (seen as dark blotches on the belly) to emit light for camouflage (to predators below), and possibly to communicate with other lanternsharks.




Wednesday, 19 April 2017

Offshore Survey commencing in the English Channel



Today (19th April 2017), JNCC and Cefas have embarked on a survey of Wight-Barfleur Reef cSAC/SCI (Annex I Reef) and Bassurelle Sandbank cSAC/SCI (Annex I ‘Sandbanks which are slightly covered by seawater all the time’) aboard the RV Cefas Endeavour (CEND0617). A map of these sites is attached below.

Wight-Barfleur Reef cSAC/SCI is characterised by a series of well-defined exposed ridges of bedrock up to 4m high and stony reefs. These habitats support a diverse range of wildlife including sponges, tube worms, anemones and sea squirts. More information about Wight-Barfleur reef cSAC/SCI can be found here; http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-6544.

Bassurelle Sandbank cSAC/SCI is characterised by its thickness of the sediment (up to 25m thick) and elevation above the surrounding area. These sandbanks support communities of a large variety of infaunal species most notably polychaete worms. More information about Bassurelle Sandbank cSAC/SCI can be found here; http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-6528.

Photo from the team this morning en route to site © JNCC.





This survey is aiming to gather evidence to monitor and inform assessment of the designated features of both sites.

At Bassurelle Sandbank cSAC/SCI, our scientists will be collecting a range of data including sediment, epifaunal and infaunal samples. At Wight-Barfleur Reef cSAC/SCI, multibeam echosounder (MBES) and sidescan sonar will be used along with video and still imagery to gather data on the seabed species and habitats that are present at the site. Environmental data, such as temperature and salinity, will also be collected to provide additional important contextual information.

Stay tuned to our blog and JNCC Twitter feed for further updates throughout the survey!



Thursday, 6 April 2017

2017 Offshore Seabed Surveys

JNCC has just published a new page on our website with details of our upcoming offshore seabed surveys that are currently planned for 2017. Take a look at the webpage to find our which Marine Protected Areas the surveys will be visiting, who we are collaborating with, the survey dates and the data we hope to collect. The webpage will be updated with new details as the planning progresses.

Link to webpage:
http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-7405